What is DFA in baseball

What is Designated for Assignment (DFA) in Baseball?

Designated for assignment (DFA) is a process used in Major League Baseball when a team wants to remove a player from its 40-man roster. Here are some key points about DFA in baseball:

So in summary, DFA provides teams a way to remove players from their 40-man roster while giving other teams a chance to claim the player before they become a free agent. It’s an important process in MLB roster management.

Designated for Assignment: A Contractual Roster Move in MLB

In Major League Baseball, teams have a 40-man roster of players under contract that are eligible to play in the majors and minors. Designated for assignment (DFA) is a contractual term used when a team wants to remove a player from its 40-man roster.

What is Designated for Assignment?

Designated for assignment is a process that allows MLB teams to open up a spot on their 40-man roster. When a player is DFA’d, he is immediately removed from both the 40-man roster and 25-man active roster. This opens a spot for the team to add another player.

How Does DFA Work?

After designating a player for assignment, the team must place him on irrevocable waivers within 7 days. Once on waivers, any other MLB team can claim the player’s contract during a designated waiver period. If the player clears waivers without being claimed, the team has 10 days to do one of three things:

  1. Trade the player to another team
  2. Release the player from his contract
  3. Outright the player to the minor leagues

Outrighting removes the player from the 40-man roster but allows the team to keep his contract and assign him to a minor league affiliate.

During the DFA process, the player’s contract remains valid. If claimed on waivers, the new team takes on the full contract. If not claimed, the original team decides whether to release, trade, or outright the player while keeping the contract intact.

Why Use DFA?

Teams commonly use DFA when they need to open up a 40-man roster spot for a prospect call up, new free agent signing, or trade acquisition. It lets teams shuffle their rosters while giving other teams a chance to claim DFA’ed players. DFA provides an important contractual mechanism for MLB teams to manage their rosters mid-season.

Reasons for Designating a Player for Assignment

There are several common reasons why a Major League Baseball team might choose to designate a player for assignment (DFA):

So in summary, DFA gives teams a contractual mechanism to swap out underperforming or redundant players on their roster in exchange for players they hope will provide an upgrade. It allows for roster flexibility.

DFA Process

Designated for assignment (DFA) is used by MLB teams to remove players from their 40-man roster. When a player is DFA’d, he is immediately taken off the 40-man roster, opening a spot for the team to add another player. This starts the DFA process.

Once DFA’d, the team has 7 days to either trade the player or place him on irrevocable outright waivers. During this period, the player remains part of the organization but cannot play in any games. If the player is traded, the process ends there.

If the 7-day period expires, the team must outright the player to the minors by placing him on waivers. If he clears waivers unclaimed by other teams, he can be outrighted. This removes him from the 40-man roster while still belonging to the same team.

However, the player can reject an outright assignment if he has accumulated at least three years of MLB service time. In this case, he can elect free agency to sign with any team. Otherwise, the player accepts the outright assignment.

If the player is claimed on outright waivers, the claiming team takes on his contract and adds him to their own 40-man roster. There is no option to reject the assignment.

Throughout the DFA process, the player’s contract remains valid and intact. Once DFA’d, the original team can either trade, release, or outright the player while keeping him under contract. DFA provides teams with roster flexibility while the player awaits his resolution.

The intricacies of the DFA process are governed by MLB’s collective bargaining agreement. It provides teams with a procedural mechanism to shuffle their rosters during the long baseball season.

Outcomes for DFA’d Player

Possible Outcomes When Designated for Assignment

Being designated for assignment is not necessarily the end of a player’s time with their current MLB team. There are a variety of outcomes that can occur after a player is DFA’d.

Return to 40-Man Roster

After designating a player for assignment, the team has 7 days to trade, release, or place the player on irrevocable waivers. During this initial period, the team may decide to remove the DFA designation and return the player to the 40-man roster. This scenario is rare, but provides one possible outcome.

Traded to Another Team

If the team opts to trade the DFA player within the 7-day period, his contract is assigned to the new team in exchange for another player, draft pick or cash considerations. The acquiring team inherits the player’s current contract.

Claimed Off Waivers

If the team places the player on outright waivers, any other MLB club can claim him within the designated waiver period. If claimed, the player is assigned to the new team’s 40-man roster. His contract remains valid.

Released as a Free Agent

If the player clears outright waivers with no team claiming his contract, his team can unconditionally release him. This grants the player free agency to sign with any MLB team.

Outrighted to Minors

The DFA team can also outright the player to the minor leagues after he clears waivers. This removes him from the 40-man roster while retaining his contracted services as an organizational depth player.

In summary, DFA leads to a variety of possible paths, including returning to the parent club, joining a new organization, becoming a free agent, or assignment to the minors. The outcome depends on waiver claim status and contractual details.

Strategic Uses of DFA

Leveraging Designated for Assignment as a Roster Strategy

Designated for assignment provides MLB teams with an important mid-season roster management tool. There are several strategic reasons clubs use DFA throughout the long 162-game season.

Roster Flexibility

DFA creates room for additions through free agent signings, trades and prospect call-ups. By quickly removing a player from the 40-man roster, his spot can be filled by a new acquisition. This facilitates roster improvements.

Opportunity to Trade

Once a player is DFA’d, the team has 7 days to potentially trade him. This allows them to get some value in return, such as a low-level prospect. While most DFA players are unwanted, some still hold appeal for certain clubs.

Removing Underperformers

DFA is commonly used by teams to cut ties with veterans or role players who are underperforming expectations. Removing the player from the roster gives opportunities to others.

Change Direction

Teams may strategically utilize DFA to change roster construction and direction. This includes trading or releasing aging, expensive veterans in order to play younger prospects.

Minor League Depth

Players who clear outright waivers can be assigned to the minors while staying with the organization. This provides 40-man roster flexibility while retaining depth.

Trial Period

DFA may be used as a low-risk trial. If the player doesn’t perform after claiming, the new team can then DFA him themselves.

In summary, DFA allows teams to shuffle the roster and provides opportunity to access depth options, evaluate new players and cut underperformers. Teams leverage the DFA transaction strategically throughout MLB seasons.

Notable Examples of DFA Transactions

Big Name Players Subject to DFA Over the Years

While lesser known players are most commonly designated for assignment, even famous MLB stars have found themselves moving through the DFA process. Some examples:

Pablo Sandoval:

After signing a 5-year, $95 million deal with the Red Sox in 2014, Sandoval massively underperformed. He was DFA’d by Boston in 2017 to make room for prospects. Sandoval was later released.

Adrian Gonzalez:

A 5-time All-Star first baseman, he was DFA’d by the Atlanta Braves in 2018 shortly after being traded there. The Braves needed roster space and parted ways with Gonzalez, despite his successful career.

Tim Lincecum:

The 2-time Cy Young Award winner found himself DFA’d in June 2016 after his dominance waned due to injuries and lost velocity. The Angels cut ties mid-season once Lincecum was no longer effective.

Alex Rodriguez:

In 2016, the Yankees DFA’d A-Rod, one of the most decorated players of his era. They subsequently released him, cutting short his massive $275 million contract.

These examples show that even players with impressive track records and large contracts are not immune to the DFA process. Teams will move on from any underperforming or ill-fitting player, using DFA as the method.

The waiver claim element of DFA also shows its unpredictability. One team deems a player expendable, only for another team to eagerly claim that player off waivers for their own roster needs.

In the end, DFA is a necessary transaction within the business of baseball. For teams, even the biggest names are movable if it improves the roster.


In conclusion, Designated for Assignment is an important contractual mechanism that allows MLB teams to strategically manage their 40-man rosters during the season. Players can be immediately removed from the roster and replaced when they are underperforming, injured, have high salaries, or there is a surplus at their position.

The DFA process involves placing the player on waivers, where any team can claim their contract in a 7-day period. If unclaimed, the team can trade, release or outright the player to the minors while keeping him under contract. Well-known players are sometimes DFA’d as well, showing the unpredictability of the process.

Teams leverage DFA transactions to shuffle their rosters, open spots for prospects, remove struggling veterans, change direction, and add organizational depth. It provides flexibility to shape MLB rosters week-to-week over the long season. While seen as a sign of failure, DFA serves an important purpose in roster construction strategy. It is an essential tool for GMs seeking to improve their ballclub.

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